UF ushers in a new age of engineering with a novel technology for 3-D printing the softest objects
By Cindy Spence

A dozen or so polymer jellyfish float in an aquarium in Tommy Angelini’s engineering lab, not alive but freaks of nature nonetheless, about to rock the world.

Just months ago, these jellyfish could not have existed; there was no way to make something so soft. That changed in 2014. Angelini was exploring ways to create fragile arrays of cells when he realized the contraption he had cobbled together not only did what he wanted it to do, but much, much, much more.

As experiments piled up — let’s try this, what if we try that — the contraption met every challenge, and doors long closed to scientific inquiry sprang open.

A new age of engineering, the Age of Soft Matter, had arrived.

As Angelini worked, he updated colleague and mentor Greg Sawyer on the eerily soft objects coming out of his lab. Sawyer issued a challenge.

“As engineers, you look at a jellyfish, and you say, that’s utterly impossible, how on earth could we manufacture that thing,” says Sawyer. “You want to make something? Make a jellyfish.”

Angelini did, and Sawyer says, “Now, let’s cross that off the impossible list, and get started.”

As a symbol of a new age and an engineering revolution that will change medicine and manufacturing, the no-longer-impossible jellyfish is perfect. If you can make a jellyfish, think what else you can make: cells, tissues, organs, tumors.


Before the jellyfish, there was a grant. Angelini had won a National Science Foundation Early Career Development Award, NSF’s most prestigious award for promising junior faculty, with a proposal to use the $500,000 to explore cell mechanics. To do that, he needed arrays of cells not confined to a petri dish. He needed cells in three dimensions.

“I wanted to study the basic physics of collective cell behavior,” Angelini says. “What do cells do spontaneously when driven by their own internal machinery?”

Tommy Angelini uses his lab’s refrigerator for quick calculations.

Angelini hired doctoral student Tapomoy Bhattacharjee and drew on assistance that ranged from a high school student working on a science fair project to Sawyer, a world-renowned tribologist and the Ebaugh professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Angelini bought a see-through laminar cabinet commonly used by geneticists because it had a way to filter air. He procured a fine-tipped nozzle like those used in 3-D printers. All he needed was a way to hold the printed cells in place; in other words, something that did not exist.

In traditional 3-D printing, the nozzle deposits liquid on a platform, and it hardens layer by layer until an object takes shape. That method would not work with something as squishy as a cell, which could not harden and would not be supported in air.

Angelini needed a specialized material, one soft enough to allow the most fragile object to take shape, but strong enough to hold it in place, so it could be studied and manipulated. The substance had to be neutral, neither contaminating nor augmenting the object it cradled, and it had to be soluble so it would rinse off, leaving no trace. It was a tall order, but Angelini figured a granular gel medium might work.

You know it as hand sanitizer.

The granular gel medium is the same as hand sanitizer without fragrance or alcohol. It straddles the solid-fluid states that Angelini needed to both hold a fragile object and later release it because the substance is 99.8 percent water. The other 0.2 percent is a polymer. As the nozzle passes through, the gel heals in its wake, leaving no sign of disturbance other than the soft, printed object, visible through the clear gel.

The intended goal — studying cells in 3-D — had an unintended, but groundbreaking, consequence — the invention of 3-D printing of soft matter.

As word spread across campus, the kneejerk reaction was, “No, that isn’t possible.” As chemists, biologists, neurologists, doctors and engineers trooped through Angelini’s laboratory, Bhattacharjee demonstrated, printing jellyfish after jellyfish, filling an aquarium with polymer creatures.

“We showed them, ‘This is the science, this is how it works,’” Bhattacharjee says. “It’s fun for a physicist, it’s fun for a biologist.”

Disbelief, Sawyer says, quickly turned to, “Wow, this is really cool!” Seconds later, wheels turning, that became, “What can I do with it?”

Sawyer and Angelini had suggestions.


In 2015, the American Cancer Society estimates 1,658,370 cases of cancer will be diagnosed in the United States; 589,430 cancer patients will die. By 2020, treating cancer will cost the U.S. over $200 billion a year.

Perhaps more staggering than the statistics is cancer’s reach. Every family has a cancer story, and that makes cancer a grand challenge for medicine.

Greg Sawyer examines a small-scale, soft matter model of a brain.

For Sawyer, it’s a personal challenge as well.

In 2013, Sawyer was diagnosed with stage IV metastatic melanoma. At first he felt helpless but, being an engineer, he did his homework. He joined a new immune therapy clinical trial, had a trio of painful operations and months of intense radiation to fight the disease. When Angelini printed the jellyfish a year later, the intersection with cancer was clear.

When the College of Medicine’s Celebration of Research rolled around, they browsed the posters at the O’Connell Center to see if they could find a collaborator. They ran into cancer researcher Steve Ghivizzani.

“I listened to them talk about this new technology, and I thought, ‘That’s just crazy.’ Greg says, ‘Just think about it: If you had the ability to position cellular things in space without restrictions, what could you use it for?’”

Ghivizzani did think about it and emailed Sawyer that night. He was in.

Cancer has been a thorny research subject because it is a chameleon. A cancer cell in one person doesn’t behave like a cancer cell in another, even if the cancers are the same. Even more confounding, each tumor is heterogeneous. On its exterior, it might be gorging on nutrients and replicating rapidly. Deep inside, it may be almost starving, but still alive, waiting for nutrients before growing. With thousands of cancer cells in each tumor, figuring out how the cells interact will be a key to future cancer treatment.

Ghivizzani says a tool that could allow cancer research to take not one step, but possibly many giant steps, got him excited.

“Innovations in science can sometimes be subtle,” Ghivizzani says. “This rocks.”

Cancer researchers have been stuck for years with two models, the petri dish and the mouse.

Cancer cells are easy to grow in a petri dish. But the biology of a cell growing in a dish is different from the biology of a cell growing in a body. In the body, cancer cells compete with other cells for nutrients, exhibiting aggression, or malignancy. In a petri dish, without competition, they adapt to their environment and often lose the malignancy a researcher wants to study. Ghivizzani says about two-thirds of the genes expressed in a tumor in the body are expressed in opposite ways in a petri dish.

The other model is the mouse, but that, too, has limits. Many cancers don’t grow in mice, prostate cancer, for instance. Most mice used for cancer research also have been genetically engineered to suppress their immune system, so immune therapies cannot be studied. Cancer grows slowly in mice, if at all, and sometimes the patients succumb before the mice can be tested. To see inside the mouse, you have to sacrifice the animal and further study of the tumor.

What is needed is a three-dimensional model between a petri dish and a mouse: 3-D soft matter printing of cancer cells.

The goal is to harvest a patient’s cancer cells, print them into the granular gel, and allow them to grow. In theory, unlimited samples could be grown and an unlimited number of therapies tried. Researchers couldn’t use 10,000 mice at once, but they could grow 10,000 samples and try different approaches. From immune therapies to various drugs, all the tests could take place at once, saving critical time for the patient.

“We can use this system to learn a lot more a lot faster than we have been able to do,” Ghivizzani says. “Can you take each patient, print replicas of their tumor and then try different therapies? That’s where we want to go.”

Ghivizzani says the ability to collaborate with engineers on cancer research is key to reaching that goal. Working with Sawyer and Angelini one afternoon during a test, it looked like they would not be able to print fast enough to continue working the next day.

“Greg sat down and did the math, and they built another machine. By the next morning, they had it reconfigured to work the way we needed it to function,” Ghivizzani says. “Their ability to solve those kinds of technical problems that are not biologic . . . without that, we won’t get where we want to go.”

Sawyer, who feels the urgency of his fellow cancer patients every 100 days when he visits his doctors, says engineers are perfect partners for cancer research. By January, he says, UF engineers will equip a lab at the College of Medicine with engineering tools for new research.

“At first, cancer seemed far from engineering. But look at it; it’s a dynamic system, far from equilibrium, and maybe that’s not so strange to engineers. This is tumor engineering. Give us six months, and we can really help from an engineering standpoint.

“Ten years from now, I think this will be the way researchers work with patients’ cancers,” Sawyer says.


A new age of engineering creates a lot of work, and Sawyer and Angelini were eager to share the cool, new science. Department Chair David Hahn agreed to a Soft Matter Engineering Research Group, and the scientists who witnessed the first jellyfish demonstrations signed on. Today, there are 28 collaborators, including two Sawyer protégés at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and Florida International University.

“Tommy made that breakthrough, printing in the granular gel, that was the quantum step forward,” Hahn says. “Now there’s a thousand things to do on top of that with the subtleties of the materials, applications, the science behind it, understanding how these materials function. It’s huge.”

Teams of engineers and doctors will tackle four areas: mechanics and failure theories of soft matter; soft matter manufacturing; transport of materials through soft matter; and soft matter for medicine.

The objects printed in the lab are orders of magnitude softer than any man-made object. Angelini says he doesn’t know of a lower limit to the mechanical integrity of the objects the lab can make, and Hahn says new mechanics and failure theories will be needed; what works for titanium will not work for cells and polymers a million times softer.

“In simple terms, a hundred-plus years that we’ve built a foundation on in traditional mechanics is largely off the table with soft matter,” Hahn says. “It really is a whole new frontier of engineering.”

Floating jellyfish

Angelini’s lab did informal tests. One early jellyfish was placed in a jar and examined weekly. It held up just fine until, at the seven-month mark, it was knocked off a shelf. On impulse, Angelini tossed a container of polymer jellyfish in his backpack to travel to a conference in Germany. They survived, so he sent them by FedEx to a colleague in Cleveland and had them shipped back. The jellyfish were no worse for wear.

Now it’s time for science to back up — or disprove — the anecdotes.

Sawyer, the go-to guy for expertise on friction and wear in mechanics and materials, says what engineering has lacked from the Stone Age to the Plastics Age and beyond is softness; soft materials have always confounded engineers.

“What is soft matter? Actually, it’s everything; it’s most of the human body. The hard matter is the weird stuff. We’ve worked with it since the Stone Age because we knew the rules,” Sawyer says. “Now, we’ve entered the Soft Matter Age.”

Engineering Professor Kevin Jones, who views materials science through a broad lens that includes anthropology, the classics, humanities and history, is creating a soft matter module for an interdisciplinary course he coordinates, “The Impact of Materials on Society.” When he wrote the course flyer, one of the teasers was, “What future materials innovations will revolutionize your world?”

“I didn’t realize that at that very moment, one of those revolutions was taking place across campus,” Jones says.

That there is no textbook for this field that didn’t exist six months ago is an opportunity, not a problem, Jones and Hahn agree.

“This has a huge wow factor. Students who thought of engineering as cars and gears, can see that mechanical engineering can be about tissue scaffolds and artificial organs and other cool stuff,” Hahn says. “The jellyfish, it’s a vehicle for excitement.”


No one is waiting for theories. Across campus, scientists are making soft materials at such a pace that six patents are pending on a technology not yet a year old.

“We had no way to make materials so soft in the past and no reason to study it. Why study something so soft and gooey you couldn’t use it for anything?” Jones says. “The minute you can engineer something out of it, that changes everything.”

The lead in manufacturing is Curtis Taylor, assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering. Already, Taylor is close to solving one of the first questions raised by the new technology: Is it possible to print efficiently with more than one material? Early experiments involved printing with a single material, in most cases polymers or cells. What if you wanted to print an object with different textures at different layers — a phantom brain, for instance, with a tumor under the surface?

Taylor and a team of students tackled that problem. They came up with an acrylic tube with four ports, one for the granular gel medium and three for other materials. To avoid the need for a valve to shut off one port so another can open, they came up with an ingenious solution: use the granular gel, which easily transitions from fluid to solid, as a plug.

The device is the size of a piece of bubblegum and would cost just $2. To make cellular or sterile materials implanted in humans the device is disposable, and although the prototype is acrylic, biodegradable materials work, too. As a manufacturing innovation, it looks simple, but it’s a workhorse.

“This little device replaces four nozzles, four pumps, four different needles, four different mechanisms for putting the needles into the gel,” Taylor says.

Also in the works are larger machines for larger objects and automation with robotic arms that can build from any angle. Questions remain, including the sequence of printing — inside out or outside in — and how fast it is possible to print with precision. To answer them, Taylor is actively recruiting. “I need a student,” he says, “I need a band of students.”

The printed soft materials can mimic the softness of human body parts, like the brain, and that opens new avenues for medical education, says neurosurgery professor Frank Bova.

A prototype of a hollow, flexible tube that represents on-demand, patient-specific medical devices.

By manufacturing artificial brains and other phantom organs that students can practice on, medical education could take a leap forward, Bova says. Models of bones and cartilage have been readily available for practice, but not soft organs.

One problem with teaching medical students is having the right case at the right time. Often, complicated cases come in when a student is learning more basic methods. Bova envisions a library of phantoms, easily printed as needed, giving students cases appropriate for their skill level as their skills grow.

Other phantoms could benefit personalized medicine. A patient’s brain could be scanned and printed with its own personal architecture — tumors, blood vessels, neurons — allowing the surgeon to rehearse before operating on the patient.

Angelini says, “Can you imagine, hearing your surgeon say, ‘Good morning, I’ve practiced this surgery on your brain five times already. You’re in good hands.”

Some colleagues are stunned by the simplicity of his idea and how easily it adapts to different uses. But that’s engineering, Angelini says, the best solutions are simple and elegant.

“Every time we thought of a new thing to do with this technology, it turned out to be really amazing. Every time we thought of a new task or a new test, the material we were using turned out to have a fantastic solution,” Angelini says.

The jellyfish — the impossible jellyfish — was almost too easy, but the road ahead holds challenges.

“I think we will help people,” Sawyer says. “This may not help me, but it will help somebody.

“We’re engineers, and engineers, regardless of what it is, feel there’s got to be something we can do to effect change. There’s a certain amount of pleasure you get from just being in the fight. I like that.”

Related Website:

This article was originally featured in the Fall 2015 issue of Explore Magazine.

薰衣草直播app污下载安装 含羞草成版人 月亮视频app下载免费 彩云直播app污下载安装 麻豆传媒直播成版人 快喵app下载免费 花姿直播app污下载安装 草榴直播成版人 樱花app污下载安装 BB直播app下载免费 九尾狐直播成版人 幸福宝成版人 丝瓜app下载免费 小喵直播app污下载安装 s8视频app污下载安装 月光宝盒直播成版人 水仙直播app污下载安装 蜜橙视频成版人 草莓成版人 小奶狗成版人 泡泡直播成版人 香蜜直播成版人 久草视频app下载免费 浪浪视频成版人 小怪兽直播app污下载安装 草莓视频app下载免费 秀色小抖音app下载免费 草榴短视频成版人 老王视频app下载免费 丝瓜成版人 恋人直播app下载免费 小小影视app下载免费 葫芦娃app下载免费 柚子直播成版人 榴莲视频成版人 花样视频app污下载安装 草莓直播app污下载安装 d2天堂app污下载安装 米老鼠直播app下载免费 小仙女app下载免费 91香蕉视频成版人 食色app污下载安装 香蕉app下载免费 丝瓜成版人 四虎app下载免费 卖肉直播成版人 音色短视频app污下载安装 花心社区成版人 笔芯直播成版人 含羞草app污下载安装 彩云直播app污下载安装 主播大秀成版人 直播盒子app污下载安装 丝瓜视频app下载免费 快播破解成版人 69视频成版人 9uuapp污下载安装 swag视频app污下载安装 咪哒app下载免费 鸭脖视频成版人 金鱼直播app污下载安装 一对一直播成版人 含羞草app下载免费 丝瓜草莓视频app下载免费 食色app下载免费 探花直播app污下载安装 含羞草成版人 水晶直播app下载免费 蜜蜂视频app污下载安装 比心直播app污下载安装 享爱app下载免费 粉色成版人 香草成视频人app污下载安装 JOJO直播成版人 尤蜜成版人 9uu成版人 快猫app污下载安装 9uu成版人 柠檬直播app污下载安装 柚子直播成版人 朵朵直播app污下载安装 小奶狗视频app下载免费 小蝌蚪视频app污下载安装 幸福宝app下载免费 妖妖直播成版人 逗趣直播app下载免费 小姐姐直播app污下载安装 硬汉视频app污下载安装 春水堂成版人 小米粒直播app污下载安装 小怪兽直播app下载免费 梦鹿直播app下载免费 豆奶短视频app污下载安装 探探直播成版人 橘子直播成版人 抖阴app污下载安装 6房间视频直播成版人 小v视频app下载免费 蜜桃直播成版人 可乐视频成版人 青草视频app下载免费 冈本视频app污下载安装 大秀直播app污下载安装 f2富二代成版人 成版人音色短视频app污下载安装 玉米视频成版人 猫咪视频app下载免费 Huluwaapp下载免费 葫芦娃成版人 樱花成版人 污软件app下载免费 金屋藏娇直播间app污下载安装 主播大秀app下载免费 蜜橙视频app下载免费 樱花雨直播app污下载安装 盘他成版人 麻豆传媒视频成版人 秀儿直播成版人 向日葵成版人 彩云直播成版人 粉色视频成版人 小宝贝直播成版人 AVnightapp下载免费 番茄社区app污下载安装 快狐成版人 梦幻直播app下载免费 猛虎直播app下载免费 恋夜秀场成版人 蓝颜app污下载安装 佳丽直播成版人 花仙子直播app污下载安装 享爱app污下载安装 AVnightapp下载免费 七秒鱼直播成版人 蓝精灵直播成版人 探花直播app污下载安装 乐购直播app下载免费 初恋直播成版人 花秀神器app下载免费 黄瓜直播app污下载安装 最污直播app污下载安装 橘子视频app污下载安装 微杏app污下载安装 遇见直播app污下载安装 铁牛app下载免费 麻豆传媒映画成版人 杏趣直播app下载免费 考拉直播app下载免费 泡芙短视频app污下载安装 快狐短视频app污下载安装 91香蕉app污下载安装 咪哒直播app污下载安装 橘子直播app下载免费 水晶直播app下载免费 成版人茄子视频成版人 小草莓app污下载安装 小可爱成版人 豆奶app污下载安装 菠萝菠萝蜜视频成版人 香蕉视频成版人 望月app污下载安装 含羞草视频app下载免费 Avboboapp下载免费 小怪兽直播app下载免费 含羞草视频app下载免费 麻豆传媒app污下载安装 十里桃花直播app下载免费 swag台湾app污下载安装 桃花app污下载安装 成版人茄子视频app污下载安装 福利直播app下载免费 小宝贝直播app下载免费 享爱app下载免费 Avnightapp污下载安装 鲍鱼视频app污下载安装 灭火卫视成版人 9uuapp污下载安装 啪嗒视频app污下载安装 恋人直播app下载免费 四虎app污下载安装 水果视频成版人 草榴视频成版人 铁牛成版人 秀色小抖音成版人 十里桃花直播app污下载安装 水晶直播成版人 梦幻直播app下载免费 樱花成版人 91香蕉视频成版人 杏趣直播app下载免费 蝴蝶直播app下载免费 水仙直播app下载免费 成版人音色短视频app下载免费 月亮直播成版人 午夜直播app下载免费 冈本视频成版人 茄子直播app污下载安装 老王视频app下载免费 含羞草实验研究所成版人 小天仙直播成版人 金鱼直播成版人 茄子直播成版人 9uuapp污下载安装 享受直播成版人 杏花直播app下载免费 小怪兽app污下载安装 小优成版人 粉色app下载免费 成版人抖音成版人 樱花雨直播app下载免费 小宝贝直播app污下载安装 皮卡丘直播成版人 麻豆视频app下载免费 蜜橙视频成版人 蝶恋花app下载免费 大小姐直播成版人 小仙女app污下载安装 小蝌蚪成版人 水晶直播app下载免费 小宝贝直播app下载免费 千层浪直播app污下载安装 快播破解app下载免费 玉米视频成版人 一对一直播app下载免费 葫芦娃app污下载安装 可乐视频app下载免费 health2app下载免费 美岁直播app下载免费 棉花糖直播app下载免费 玉米视频app污下载安装 小奶狗视频app污下载安装 番茄直播app污下载安装 菠萝蜜成版人 抖阴app污下载安装 爱爱视频app污下载安装 花秀神器app下载免费 桃花直播app污下载安装 金鱼直播app下载免费 春水堂视频app污下载安装 97豆奶视频成版人 草榴直播app下载免费 杏吧直播app下载免费 初恋视频app下载免费 九尾狐视频成版人 樱花直播app下载免费 9uu成版人 卖肉直播成版人 丝瓜视频app污下载安装 仙人掌app污下载安装 月色直播app污下载安装 美梦视频app下载免费 享爱app污下载安装 皮卡丘直播app下载免费 黄瓜视频人成版人 麻豆传媒视频成版人 Avboboapp污下载安装 蜜柚直播成版人 草莓视频成版人 美岁直播app污下载安装 心上人直播app污下载安装 豆奶抖音短视频成版人 夜夜直播成版人 MM直播app污下载安装 初恋直播app下载免费 杏趣直播app污下载安装 男人本色西瓜视频app下载免费 铁牛视频成版人 咪咪直播app污下载安装 彩云直播成版人 台湾swag成版人 梦鹿直播app下载免费 草莓视频app下载免费 含羞草视频成版人 泡芙app下载免费 红颜app污下载安装 麻豆传媒视频app污下载安装 葫芦娃app污下载安装 彩色直播app下载免费 花心直播成版人 铁牛视频app下载免费 夜猫视频成版人 奶茶视频app下载免费 小草莓成版人 云雨直播成版人 d2天堂成版人 花狐狸直播app污下载安装 春水堂视频app污下载安装 千层浪app下载免费 十里桃花直播app污下载安装 荔枝app污下载安装 大秀直播成版人 黄瓜视频人app污下载安装 快猫短视频成版人 春水堂视频app污下载安装 老王视频成版人 免费黃色直播成版人 丝瓜草莓视频app下载免费 名优馆app下载免费 咪哒直播成版人 花姬成版人 硬汉视频app污下载安装 兔子直播app下载免费 柠檬直播app下载免费 葫芦娃视频成版人 泡芙视频成版人 小奶猫app下载免费 小仙女成版人 圣女直播app下载免费 菠萝蜜视频成版人 黄瓜直播app下载免费 草莓成版人 梦幻直播app下载免费 云上花app下载免费 午夜神器app污下载安装 s8视频app污下载安装 橘子视频app污下载安装 花椒直播app下载免费 色秀直播app污下载安装 水晶直播app下载免费 菠萝蜜app下载免费 初恋视频成版人 杏吧直播成版人 榴莲视频app下载免费 咪哒直播成版人 盘她直播app下载免费 秀色小抖音app下载免费 9uu成版人 红颜app下载免费 午夜神器app下载免费 彩云直播成版人 Kitty直播成版人 麻豆传媒视频成版人 花心直播app下载免费 七秒鱼直播成版人 大秀直播成版人 小狐仙成版人 d2天堂app污下载安装 幸福宝app下载免费 小v视频app下载免费 咪哒直播app污下载安装 遇见直播app下载免费 左手视频app污下载安装 柠檬直播app下载免费 樱桃视频app下载免费 乐购直播app下载免费 灭火卫视app污下载安装 趣播app下载免费 小蝌蚪成版人 花友直播成版人 红玫瑰直播app污下载安装 彩色直播app下载免费 水蜜桃app污下载安装 彩色直播app污下载安装 金屋藏娇直播间成版人 左手视频成版人 午夜直播成版人 左手视频app污下载安装 烟花直播app污下载安装 蜜柚成版人 仙人掌app污下载安装 蓝精灵直播app下载免费 樱花app下载免费 麻豆传媒视频成版人 午夜直播间app污下载安装 小猪视频app污下载安装 卖肉直播成版人 可乐视频app污下载安装 iAVBOBOapp污下载安装 avgo成版人 麻豆传媒映画app下载免费 小草视频app污下载安装 樱桃app污下载安装 初见直播成版人 花秀神器app下载免费 黄鱼视频成版人 小怪兽成版人 蜜桃直播成版人 猛虎直播成版人 菠萝蜜视频app污下载安装 柠檬视频app污下载安装 十里桃花直播成版人 彩色直播成版人 陌秀直播app下载免费 蜜桃直播成版人 JAV名优馆成版人 麻豆传媒成版人 比心直播成版人 么么直播app下载免费 小姐姐直播app污下载安装 彩色直播app下载免费 火爆社区app污下载安装 9uu成版人 心上人直播成版人 9uuapp污下载安装 福利直播app下载免费 水蜜桃app下载免费 福利直播app污下载安装 草榴视频app污下载安装 秀色小抖音app污下载安装 草莓视频app污下载安装 荔枝视频app污下载安装 灭火卫视成版人 MM直播app污下载安装 蜜柚直播app污下载安装 小姐姐直播成版人 可乐视频app污下载安装 圣女直播app污下载安装 小可爱成版人 黄鱼视频成版人 快播破解app下载免费 夏娃直播成版人 秀色小抖音app下载免费 d2天堂成版人 朵朵直播成版人 葫芦娃视频成版人 榴莲视频app下载免费 月光直播成版人 成版人茄子视频成版人 夜魅直播成版人 茄子视频成版人 小天仙直播app下载免费 秀色小抖音app污下载安装 小奶狗app下载免费 樱花app下载免费 享爱成版人 柠檬直播app污下载安装 菠萝菠萝蜜视频app下载免费 小仙女app下载免费 可乐视频成版人 美梦视频app下载免费 金鱼直播成版人 啪嗒视频app污下载安装 小怪兽直播成版人 食色短视频app污下载安装 木瓜视频app下载免费 黄瓜视频app下载免费 微啪app下载免费 佳丽直播视频成版人 金屋藏娇直播间app污下载安装 6房间视频直播app污下载安装 ML聚合app污下载安装 夜巴黎直播成版人 麻豆传媒视频app下载免费 夜遇直播号成版人 蘑菇视频app下载免费 69视频app污下载安装 斗艳直播成版人 红颜app下载免费 花心直播app下载免费 成人快手app下载免费 可乐视频成版人 嘿嘿连载app下载免费 十里桃花直播app污下载安装 污直播app污下载安装 花姿直播app下载免费 黄瓜视频人app下载免费 水晶直播app污下载安装 火辣直播成版人 7秒鱼app污下载安装 小猪视频app下载免费 桃花直播app下载免费 成版人抖音富二代app污下载安装 丝瓜成版人 暗夜直播app污下载安装 探探直播app下载免费 成人快手app污下载安装 老王视频app污下载安装 盘她直播app污下载安装 夜夜直播成版人 合欢视频成版人 丝瓜app下载免费 富二代f2app污下载安装 享爱成版人 遇见直播app下载免费 萝卜视频app污下载安装 fi11含羞草app污下载安装 AVBOBOapp污下载安装 花狐狸直播app污下载安装 月光宝盒直播app污下载安装 千层浪成版人 花心直播app污下载安装 成版人茄子视频app下载免费 AVnightapp下载免费 菠萝蜜成版人 MM直播app污下载安装 探花直播成版人 成版人茄子视频app下载免费 咪哒直播成版人 主播福利app下载免费 大西瓜视频app污下载安装 考拉直播app下载免费 音色短视频成版人 豆奶成版人 麻豆视频app污下载安装 内裤直播成版人 欢喜视频app污下载安装 梦鹿直播成版人 花心社区成版人 BB直播app下载免费 番茄视频成版人 成版人茄子视频成版人 夜魅直播app下载免费 fi11含羞草成版人 恋人直播app下载免费 花样视频app污下载安装 IAVBOBOapp下载免费 小喵直播app污下载安装 主播福利app下载免费 名优馆app污下载安装 彩云直播成版人 泡芙视频app下载免费 草榴视频app污下载安装 水晶直播app污下载安装 91香蕉视频成版人 微杏成版人 小花螺直播成版人 皮卡丘直播app下载免费 木瓜app下载免费 野花视频成版人 十里桃花直播成版人 年轻人片app污下载安装 蝶恋花app下载免费 麻豆传媒映画app下载免费 梦幻直播成版人 红玫瑰直播成版人 樱花视频app下载免费 9uuapp污下载安装 雨云直播成版人 雨燕直播app污下载安装 灭火卫视成版人 小公主直播app污下载安装 菠萝蜜视频app污下载安装 朵朵直播成版人 小狐仙视频app下载免费 草榴短视频app污下载安装 猫咪软件app下载免费 盘她直播app下载免费 食色app下载免费 成人快手成版人 咪哒app污下载安装 铁牛视频app污下载安装 免费黃色直播app下载免费 性直播成版人 小狐仙app污下载安装 和欢视频成版人 梦露直播app下载免费 大小姐直播app下载免费 彩云直播成版人 夜夜直播app污下载安装 么么直播成版人 薰衣草直播成版人 花姿成版人 MM直播app污下载安装 米老鼠直播app下载免费 91视频app下载免费 一对一直播app污下载安装 红杏视频成版人 小v视频app污下载安装 彩云直播app下载免费 逗趣直播成版人 夜夜直播成版人 丝瓜视频污app下载免费 蜜橙视频成版人 污软件app下载免费 迷雾直播app下载免费 菠萝菠萝蜜视频成版人 葫芦娃视频app污下载安装 浪浪视频app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 秋葵视频app下载免费 比心直播成版人 抖阴视频app污下载安装 妖妖直播app下载免费 快狐成版人 ML聚合直播app污下载安装 猛虎直播app下载免费 粉色app污下载安装 夜夜直播app下载免费 小花螺直播app污下载安装 咪咪直播app下载免费 成版人快手成版人 小小影视成版人 和欢视频成版人 Huluwaapp下载免费 主播大秀app下载免费 心上人直播成版人 红高粱直播app下载免费 fi11含羞草app下载免费 秀色直播app污下载安装 茶馆视频成版人 猛虎视频app污下载安装 小蝌蚪app污下载安装 蜜蜂视频app污下载安装 咪哒直播成版人 桃花app下载免费 91直播app下载免费 冈本视频app下载免费 音色短视频app下载免费 夜遇直播号app下载免费 污软件app污下载安装 啪嗒视频成版人 成版人茄子视频成版人 逗趣直播app污下载安装 黄色直播软件成版人 猫咪视频app污下载安装 橙子视频app污下载安装 夜狼直播app下载免费 秋葵视频app污下载安装 蝴蝶直播app下载免费 千层浪直播成版人 猫咪软件app下载免费 香蕉视频app下载免费 秀色直播成版人 BB直播app污下载安装 雨云直播app下载免费 小蝌蚪视频成版人 大小姐直播成版人 小狐仙成版人 雨云直播app污下载安装 f2富二代app污下载安装 s8视频app下载免费 小公主直播app下载免费 灭火卫视app下载免费 丝瓜草莓视频app污下载安装 老王视频app污下载安装 午夜神器成版人 后宫视频成版人 蜜桃成版人 向日葵视频成版人 蓝颜成版人 成人直播app下载免费 七秒鱼app污下载安装 千层浪视频app污下载安装 小宝贝直播成版人 小狐仙直播app污下载安装 泡芙短视频app污下载安装 色秀直播成版人 樱花直播app污下载安装 金鱼直播app污下载安装 swag视频app下载免费 享受直播app污下载安装 年轻人片成版人 花心直播app污下载安装 火爆社区成版人 成版人抖音app污下载安装 麻豆传媒直播app污下载安装 浪浪视频app下载免费 小草视频成版人 小宝贝直播app污下载安装 猛虎直播成版人 快狐短视频app污下载安装 花心成版人 小怪兽app污下载安装